Wednesday, July 31, 2019
PLANNING FOR A PERFECT WEDDING On every girlÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, when planning a wedding, all you really want is the wedding of a lifetime, the one that will be everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s talk in the town for some months. The little details like wedding supplies can make a difference between a great wedding and unforgettable ones. Supplies vary from wedding dresses to wedding labels. Each of this is selected according to the theme of the day. Some supplies are must have. For the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s gown it should be well fitting, flattering to her figure and to her dream design. The right lingerie should be worn so as to be comfortable. The groomÃ¢â¬â¢s attire should be well fitting. It should not only give him confidence but also make him feel special and comfortable. The bridesmaid, groomsmen and pageboys should also be dressed according to the theme and the design of the bride and groom. The bouquets should be according to the theme and color of the day. The ladies hairstyles should be exotic and eye catching. Accessories should blend well with the attires they have on and not too much extravagant. The reception and venues should be well decorated according to the theme. The tables should be set, wedding napkins available, name tags available to avoid confusion on who sits where. If it is an evening wedding, the lightning should be perfect; candle holders, candle, chandeliers and floral lights create a more romantic atmosphere. We have different types of cakes. The wedding cake should be a flavor enjoyed by both the bride and the groom. Cake plates should be available for easy serving. Cupcake trees is also a nice idea, this makes sure that the cake is enough for everybody in the congregation. You can have a cake topper of your choice or just ignore it. The venue of the wedding, be it a church, a hall or outside, the place must be decorated. Floral arrangement should be perfect. Wedding centerpieces should be eye catching and breathe taking to attract attention to the theme of the wedding. They can also include a centerpiece vase that can be an artifact stealing more attention to the theme. Remember the aisle runner, it is the first thing everybody sees when they reach the venue. We have so many wedding suppliers. Some provide the whole package and some just some services. Some are quite expensive others are affordable. You need a reliable wedding supplier, not all are. Before choosing on whom to settle on, you need to have decided on the budget. You should settle for what you afford. You have to budget for all necessities like attires, rings, venue fee and transportation. The remainder of the money will decide on the number of people to invite and who the best suppliers are. Talking to someone who has already had a successful wedding is a good way of finding reliable group of people or companies to make your day the best. You should have open line of communication and work together to make your day unique. Remember to sample their products and look at their equipment before settling for any of them. Contracts are also advisable but read them carefully to make sure they are under your terms and conditions.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Sabrina Shaw Hunter 2A IB History of the Americas HL 7 November 2012 Paper 3 Guide: Mexican Revolution Bullet Points: Defined and Summarized: 1. Causes of the Mexican Revolution: social, economic, and political; the role of the Porfiriato regime * Porfirio Diaz was the dictator of Mexico from 1876 to 1910. His regime is known as the Porfiriato regime. DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s social ideologies and aims were to divide and rule, obtain absolute power DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s methods were the Pan o Palo policy and the spoil system.Diaz wanted to increase industrialization without increasing foreign investment and he used the spoil system to gain the support of the wealthy landowners. DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s political goals were to have autocratic rule, have absolute power, and obtain these through this policies and systems mentioned earlier. * Through DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s spoil system, the wealthy became wealthier and the poor, common Mexicans were starving.Hacienda owners were benefiting from the economic situation of Mexico but the people were being oppressed socially, economically, and politically, until Madero began spreading non re-election campaigns and revo lutionary leaders began to form groups and later armies, starting the Mexican Revolution.2. The revolution and its leaders (1910-1917): Ideologies, aims, methods of Madero, Villa, Zapata, Carranza; achievements and failures; Constitution of 1917: nature and application * Madero: Came to power through the overthrowing of Diaz- Popular for his book, Presidential Succession of 1910.Sought democracy, gained presidency through popular vote. His 15 months in office were followed by resistance political disaster, non-cooperation, and disunity between his followers and eventually Huerta. (His supposedly appointed commander of the government forces who conspired with the rebels for MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s fall) * The aims of Madero were to remove Diaz from power and then take DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s power. VillaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims changed impulsively and for immediate convenience. ZapataÃ¢â¬â¢s aims were for agrarian reform complete revolutionary changes and land distribution evenly to the poor.CarranzaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims were to overthrow Huerta and to create a plan similar to MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s but without the ambitious social reforms. The ideologies of each revolutionary leader are very similar to the aims of each leader. The methods of Madero were forming the Anti-Reelectionist Center of Mexico and creating the Plan of San Luis Potosi. The methods of Villa were guerilla tactics and being a charismatic leader that connected with the lower class. The methods of Zapata were choosing small, easy battle to boost morale among his men and fighting while Diaz was occupied with the North.The methods of Carranza were fighting Huerta and creating the Plan of Guadalupe. Madero and Carranza both became president, however they did not keep this position for very long because of their lack of social reform. ZapataÃ¢â¬â¢s Plan of Ayala was accepted by the other revolutionary leaders. Villa was able to fight and then able to retire after the revolution. * Constitution of 1917: The Constitution of 1917 is des cribed as one of the most progressive constitution created at this time within Mexico; it had significant influence on the political developments of the country.The constitution of 1917 was approved by the Constitutional Congress on February 5, 1917 as the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. It was similar to the constitution of 1857 but gave more power to the Executive branch and gave additional rights to the Mexican people. The constitution displayed significant changes in Mexican political philosophy that helped frame the political and social backdrop for Mexico in the twentieth century. For its time it is important as it was established prior to the ending of the revolution, showing that the Mexican people were slowly gaining what they were fighting for. Carranza was the first president to serve under this constitution.3. Construction of the post-revolutionary state (1920-38): Obregon, Calles, and the Maximato; challenges; assessment of their impact in the post- revolutionary state Obregon: * Mexican president from 1920 to 1924. Obregon was assassinated in 1928 before he won the reelection his second presidential term. Calles: * Calles held power indirectly through 3 presidents which were his Ã¢â¬Å"puppetsÃ¢â¬ . They were Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio, and Abelardo Rodriguez.Calles plays an important role after the revolution since, because of him, there was a constitutional change that allowed non-consecutive reelection within Mexico. In 1926, Calles also made an anticlerical legislation by reforming the penal code, this law outlawed religious orders. Some Mexican states such as Jalisco, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Colima, and Michoacan, strongly opposed the idea of this law ultimately leading to the Cristero war. The impact of Calles was very negative on Mexico, because it plunged Mexico into another war. Maximato: A time period of 1928-1935 in which Mexico was led by Plutarco Elias Calles, who is also known as el Jefe Maximo (the supreme leader)4. Lazaro Cardenas and the renewal of the revolution (1939-40): aims, methods, and achievements * Lazaro Cardenas was the president from 1934-1940, quite a few years after the 1920 end to the Mexican revolution. He distributed land, made loans available to peasants, organized workersÃ¢â¬â¢ and peasantsÃ¢â¬â¢ confederations, and expropriated and nationalized foreign-owned industries. One of his successes was the six year plan, continuing the spirit of the Mexican Revolution.Cardenas reorganized and purged the party of Calles' influence. These actions focused on the three pillars of his party, labor, peasantry, and the army. One of his methods included reassessing the Indian cultural heritage, pushing the greatness of old Indian arts and the reevaluation of the Aztec culture which emphasized their influence on modern culture and increased nationalism. Another success of Cardenas included Tienda de Raya. This was a system in which workers on large landholders' land w ould be paid in vouchers or tokens that were only redeemable at the stores belonging to the landholders. Any debt created by one worker would be passed to his children if he was unable to pay it, this created a system where debt would continue to move through the generations until fully paid.5. The role of foreign powers (especially the United States) in the outbreak and development of the Mexican Revolution; motivations, methods of intervention and contributions * Before the war, the United States decided that they would aid civil authorities in enforcing neutrality laws. The United States distinguished themselves and made Mexico aware of their actions in light of war and assistance.Jacob Dickinson, secretary of war for the US authorized American Military to warn Mexican militaries about actions that would be taken if American lives and properties were threatened. This action made it clear to Mexico that the US would only intervene under these circumstances. WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of intervention was to get the constitutionals, including Carranza, into power so that he could attempt to control the party. Wilson desired for Mexico to be educated in liberal and constitutional lines. During the revolution the largest involvements of the US and Mexico was the Tampico affair and the storm of Veracruz.Woodrow Wilson sought to influence the conflict by controlling the flow of foreign military supplies to Mexico through its primary port, Veracruz. Wilson intended to weaken the government of Huerta by seizing and blockading Veracruz. This would weaken Huerta as Veracruz was the most important port for arms coming in to Mexico. With Americans controlling the port city Wilson could limit the Mexican Army's access to military supplies and could ultimately dictate the flow of arms to the next government of Mexico.By getting involved in both the Tampico affair and storm of Veracruz, Wilson was announcing to Mexico and the revolutionary leaders who he supported and didnÃ¢â¬â ¢t. Other than these two physical involvements, the US aided several leaders by providing Madero with a safe haven, and several other leaders with arms to overthrow some leaders while supporting the rise of others. Wilson tried to eliminate the problem of Villa in an attempt to satisfy outraged Americans after a Villista raid on Columbus, New Mexico. The United States officially acknowledged the new Mexican government when Carranza came to terms on March 11.6. Impact of the revolution of the arts, education and music (suitable examples could be Siquerios, Rivera, Orozco); the impact of VasconcelosÃ¢â¬â¢ educational reforms; the development of popular music; literary works on the revolution * Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974)- A Mexican social realist painter who is known for his large murals in fresco. These murals helped build the post-revolutionary Mexican renaissance. Siqueiros as a person historically, participated in the assassination attempt to Leon Trotsky.Diego Rive ra (1886-1957) Ã¢â¬â A very well-known Mexican painter whose works are displayed from New York City, to Mexico City, and all the way to Buenos Aires. He was married to another famous Mexican artist, Frida Kahlo. Rivera's radical political beliefs, his attacks on the church and clergy, as well as his dealings with Trotskyists and left-wing assassins made him a controversial figure throughout Mexico. * Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949) Ã¢â¬â Mexican social realist painter who specialized in bold murals. Orozco was the most complex of the Mexican muralists.He was very fond of the theme of human suffering, being less realistic in his works. He was also more fascinated by machines than Rivera. He promoted the political causes of peasants and workers, similar to the ideals of Zapata. * Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) Ã¢â¬â Mexican artist known for her great self-portraits, she is remembered for the passion and pain, their vibrant colors. As communists, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera were ac tive communists and were friends with Leon Trotsky as he sought political asylum in Mexico from Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s.It is important to note that the artistic movement began in Mexico around the 1930s. The artist movement following the revolution stands out historically because of its political undertones, the majority being of a Marxist nature. Many pieces of artwork from the time period are related to the social and political situation of post-revolutionary Mexico. * Jose Vasconcelos (1882-1959) Ã¢â¬â Vasconcelos was a Mexican writer, philosopher, and politician. He worked as Secretary of Education under Alvaro Obregon. He is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico.Vasconcelos started the Mexican mural movement that allowed famous Mexican artists to paint on the walls of the most important Mexican buildings. Ã¢â¬Å"El pueblo a la universidad, la universidad al puebloÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ â ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a mural painted by Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros that represented the people from rural areas were going into school as a result of VasconcelosÃ¢â¬â¢ educational reforms. i. He is a controversial figure in Mexico, he denounced democracy and supported the ideas of race and power. Supportive of both Madero and Villa during the revolution, he was responsible for initiating major reforms in the Mexican school system. Manuel Ponce Ã¢â¬â Mexican composer active throughout the 20th century.Ponce connected the concert scene with a forgotten tradition of popular song and Mexican folklore. Many of his compositions are strongly influenced by the harmonies and form of traditional songs. He was able to revive the idea of traditional songs and music. La Cucaracha (The cockroach) Ã¢â¬â Mexican folklore corrido whose origins are unclear but some argue it began during the revolution and became popular after it ended. Some verses were changed and it said that revenge was wanted for MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Carlos Chavez- Mexican composer, music theorist, and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. ChavezÃ¢â¬â¢s music was influenced by many native Mexican cultures such as the Yaqui. After the Mexican revolution and the democratic election of President Alvaro Obregon, he was well known for using Aztec themes in his music.Key People (10) 1. Porfirio Diaz * Was the leader of Mexico from 1876 to 1910. Diaz came from a military background, with an Indian history. He governed with the Pan o Palo policy, a policy where Mexican citizens were threatened with the ability to eat or be beaten.The policy won Diaz the support of the church and wealthy landowners. By instilling fear into Mexican citizens Diaz was able to remain in control. His rurales tried to suppress peasants and their revolts during his reign. Diaz was known to use the spoil system, awarding and promoting unqualified people for his own personal gain. He struggled with finding a way to modernize Mexico and how to boost the economy without foreign investment. Diaz was ultimately overthrown in 1910 with the opposition of Madero, and went into exile in 1911. 2. Francisco Madero Madero opposed the dictatorship of Diaz and was pro-democracy. He wrote and published Ã¢â¬Å"The Presidential Succession of 1910Ã¢â¬ in hopes that Diaz would stick to his word and allow for a democratic leader to take charge of Mexico. His democratic ideologies were reflected in his non-reelection campaigns and his desire to enact political change. He came from an upper-class family, possibly one of the reasons he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so focused on social conflict in Mexico at the time. His anti-reelection clubs landed him in jail by Diaz, which led to his escape to Texas.This is where Madero planned San Luis Potosi , ultimately calling for the election of 1910 declared void and Diaz to be officially overthrown. Madero assumes power in 1911 by constitutional presidency. Madero used his educational background to spark the revolution, using his knowledge to his advantage. His revolutionary ideals, however, were unsuccessful as he was focused on power instead of pleasing the people. It is also important to know that Madero lacked support of rural leaders, specifically the support of Zapata who was a leader focused on social change.3. Pancho Villa VillaÃ¢â¬â¢s aims were based upon convenience as he was a revolutionary leader that tagged alongside those in power at the time. He was well known for using guerilla tactics and primarily advocating for the poor and supporting the idea of agrarian reform. He was an unstable leader as he was one who sought action and crime. He was eventually murdered on July 20, 1923.4. Emiliano Zapata * Zapata fought a primarily defensive war. He held non-political methods and ideologies, fighting for a non-violent diplomacy. In that, his main goals were social and agrarian reforms. This is seen as he formed the Ayala plan and spent his time supporti ng this plan. It revolved around the Mexican land and returning it to rightful land owners. Zapata was focused on controlling small farms and redistributing land in the South rather than focused on power in the North.5. Venustiano Carranza * Carranza became president of Mexico after the overthrow of Huerta in 1914. His success in the revolution was because of his ability to portray himself as wise leader with a hope for peace. Carranza was a supporter of Madero, following his no reelection movement in 1910.Madero named him commander in chief in the revolution of Coahuila and Tamaulipas. Carranza believed that the Plan of San Luis Potosi, originally created by Madero, was inaccurate as the social reform would be nearly impossible to achieve. He then created the Plan of Guadalupe. This plan promised to restore the 1857 Constitution of Mexico without the promised social reforms. The plans then lead to the introduction of Obregon, as he would be the one to create the army for Carranza t o lead. Carranza was an ambitious leader, allowing him to be more successful in the revolution than those who relied strictly on arms.6. Alvaro Obregon Obregon supported Carranza in the overthrowing of Huerta, which led to Carranza becoming president. In 1920, Obregon started a revolt against Carranza and Carranza was assassinated. Obregon became the president. His presidency is known as the first stable presidency since the revolution began in 1910. He made education reform, land reform, and made labor laws, for example.7. Victoriano Huerta * Madero sent Huerta to stop OrozcoÃ¢â¬â¢s revolt. After defeating Orozco, he returned to Mexico with a heroÃ¢â¬â¢s welcome. Huerta was promoted to Commander in Chief. Madero put Huerta in charge to stop the coup started by a U. S. ambassador.Madero successfully stopped the attempted coup and when he returned, he gained a lot of power and made Madero resign from the presidency. Huerta becomes president on February 19, 1913. In 1913, Carranza leads a rebellion against Huerta, because all the revolutionary leaders are against Huerta except for Orozco. * In 1914, the U. S. turns against Huerta after he killed a senator. * Huerta tried to unite Mexico under a common hatred for America, but inevitably failed. * He realizes that he cannot win after the US storms Vera Cruz after the Tampico affair, Huerta resigns on July 15, 1914 and Carranza becomes president.8. Pascual Orozco * Orozco supported Madero, because he wanted to remove Diaz from power. He grew to dislike Madero because of MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of reforms and because Madero did not give Orozco a position in the cabinet or a state governorship. Orozco resigned, but Madero did not accept it until he turned down the governorship of Chihuahua. On March 3, 1912, Orozco declared that he was rebelling against Madero. Orozco was defeating MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s army, so Madero sent Huerta to stop Orozco, which he accomplished by August. Orozco fled to the U. S. ut later returned to partner with Huerta when Huerta became the president. After the fall of Huerta, Orozco returned to the U. S. , where he was shot and killed on August 30, 1915.9. Benito Juarez * Juarez was a lawyer who was the president of Mexico for 5 terms. His death led to the beginning of the Porfiriato regime of Diaz. 1806-1872 10. Lazaro Cardenas * Cardenas was the president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. He was a very revolutionary president. He arrested Calles and some of CallesÃ¢â¬â¢ associates for their persecution of the church that led to the Cristero War.He used the National Revolutionary PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s six-year plan of social and political reform. His programs built schools and roads, promoted education, and included land reform. After his presidency Cardenas continued to have power through puppet-like men that he controlled who became president.Key Events (7)1. Presidential Succession of 1910 * This was a book written and published by Madero. Its purpose was to call for the current president, Diaz, to step down from power and allow free elections. It ultimately helped Madero gain power during the revolution.2. Plan of Ayala * November 25, 1911 The plan of Ayala was created by Zapata and enacted on November 25, 1911. It was a plan that called for agrarian reform, the basis of ZapataÃ¢â¬â¢s revolution and the reason why he is an important leader in the revolution. The plan sets Zapata, as a leader, apart from the others as it shows ZapataÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals of social reform through agriculture rather than the fight for political power.3. Plan of Guadalupe * February 24, 1913 The plan of Guadalupe was established by Carranza in 1913. It focused around political power, calling for the transfer of power in Mexico and improving conditions for the poor.It came as a result of HuertaÃ¢â¬â¢s overthrow of Madero, with Carranza believing that HuertaÃ¢â¬â¢s rise to power was illegitimate. The plan rejected Huerta's government and focused on a continuation of Madero's p olicies. It was recognized by leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Obregon. It was one of the three most important documents within the Mexican revolution. The plan gathered Villa, Zapata, and Orozco to help Carranza in the overthrow of Huerta in July 1914. * Carranza calling for the overthrow of Huerta and restoration of the constitution of 1857 (limiting the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s power)4.Tampico Affair * Led to storm of Veracruz * April 9, 1914 * A battle was taking place in Tampico when a U. S. ship landed there. The federal authorities of Mexico arrested all the Americans to protect them from the fighting. The American general was outraged by their treatment and demanded an apology with a 21 gun salute. The federals refused to grant his request of a 21 gun salute, further angering the Americans. The U. S. placed an embargo on armament shipment to the federal authorities of Mexico as a result of the affair. The Tampico affair ultimately leads to the storm of Vera Cruz.The U. S. invaded V era Cruz instead of Tampico because U. S. businesses had oil refineries in Tampico and they did not want to disturb oil production, illustrating the expanse of U. S. industry in Mexico.5. Treaty of Ciudad Juarez * May 21, 1911 * The treaty of Ciudad Juarez stated that Diaz had to resign by the end of 1911, the interim president would be Francisco de la Barra, and that De la Barra is in charge of holding free elections. It is an important document as it ends DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s reign and allows for the beginning of MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s power.The treaty left all of DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s political leaders and institutions in place, making it hard to rid the system of Diaz and his way of running Mexico. 6. Obregon offers amnesty to Villas army: December 1915 * Obregon offered amnesty to all the Villistas, the soldiers in VillaÃ¢â¬â¢s army. The amnesty was only not offered to high-ranking officials and Villa himself. This event gave VillaÃ¢â¬â¢s soldiers a way out of the war after fighting for five yea rs. VillaÃ¢â¬â¢s army was severely reduced and he was forced to retreat to the hills of Chihuahua.7. Convencion de Aguascarlientes of 1914 This was a constitutional convention that raised issues between the central leaders, bringing forth their differences once again. Obregon attends the meeting while the other leaders are absent. It is here that the Plan of Ayala gets its first support, it is voted on to dismiss Carranza from office, and sparks a string of events surrounding Villa and Carranza. Villa then enters the US and makes an attack, in which the US retaliates by sending troops into America trying to capture Villa. Carranza at this point was being supported by the US and was defending the interests of the upper class citizens of Mexico.Key Dates (7)1.Resignation of Diaz * May 25, 1911 The resignation of Diaz ended an era of dictatorship and sparked the revolution as multiple leaders had conflicting ideas on what was best for Mexico and what were the best ways of achieving t hese goals. DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s resignation led to MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption of power and ultimately the beginning of the Mexican revolution.2. Meeting of Zapata and Villa * December 4, 1911 Zapata and Villa met for the first time in the presidential palace on December 4, 1911. At this meeting the two leaders agreed that they did not want the presidency, the power over Mexico,3. Storm of Veracruz * April 21, 1914Within this incident there were over 200 Mexicans dead, 300 wounded and 19 American dead and 47 wounded. These numbers showed the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ superiority in numbers, technology, and strategy at the time. The United States stormed Veracruz in light of Tampico affair after not receiving a 21 gun salute after the arrests in Tampico. They stormed Veracruz because they did not want to invade Tampico because America had oil refineries in Tampico. It is also one of the main ports in which Huerta was receiving arms, if the US could control that port they could show dominance in support of Carranza and against Huerta.4.Madero wins presidential election * November 6, 1911 This is revolutionary as Madero has successfully overtaken Porfirio Diaz. MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s reign was to be short as he made several mistakes as he assumed power. The biggest mistake that Madero made was not officially taking over for a couple of months, this allowed DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters and leaders to down talk Madero and undermine his authority to the citizens of Mexico.5. Murdering of Madero * February 22, 1913 * The U. S. ambassador stages a coup led by DiazÃ¢â¬â¢s nephew, but the coup is not supported by the U. S. government. Madero puts Huerta in charge of stopping the coup. Huerta stops the attempted coup, but returns and makes Madero resign as he gains power. Madero believes Huerta will let him resign peacefully. However, Huerta kills MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s brothers and then kills Madero. Madero becomes a revolutionary martyr and killing Madero alienates international opinion * Huerta gains power6. Carranza becomes president * August 20, 1914 * Carranza led a rebellion against Huerta. Combined with CarranzaÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion and the U. S. invasion of Sera Cruz, HuertaÃ¢â¬â¢s power was drained. Huerta resigned and Carranza became the president.7. Zapata is murdered * April 10, 1919 * By a group organized by Carranza . 1920: Obregon with the help of Zapatistas, Villistas, and other revolutionaries overthrow and kill Carranza.Obregon becomes president Quotations (2)1. Ã¢â¬Å"A dog with a bone neither kills nor stealsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âPorfirio Diaz2. Ã¢â¬Å"It is better to die on your feet than to live on your kneesÃ¢â¬ -Emiliano ZapataÃ * This quotation is an important one when dealing with the Revolution. It characterizes Zapata as one of the revolutionary leaders quite nicely. This is because Zapata was the leader that stood strong, and fought enthusiastically, for what he believed in; he fought hard for agrarian reform in the South of Mexico.It is a good r eflection of how he would rather stand up for what he believed in than to subject himself to something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not as worthy. Two Historians: Michael C. Meyer- The Course of Mexican History| * Ã¢â¬Å"They neither were not just traditional organized armies nor were they simply peasant mobs. Ã¢â¬ Meyer focuses on the uniqueness of the rebel armies and how the uniqueness of the armies led to internal migration and mixing of languages, as well as giving more power to the people.Meyer says, Ã¢â¬Å"since the base of power was shifting to new hands the future for the masses seemed auspicious and this hope stems into later generations. | Frank Mclynn- Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution| * Mclynn claims that Ã¢â¬Å"Capitalism took a stronger hold on Mexico because of the revolution. Ã¢â¬ In this quotation Mclynn says there are three main strands of the revolution. First, the improvement of capitalism leading to a rise in industrial bourgeoisie. Second, the moveme nt of peasants leading to demands for ancestral lands. Third, the alliance of persons from the North with different occupations led to increased capitalism. | Past Test Questions (10)To what extent did foreign intervention prolong the Mexican Revolution? 2003)Ã¢â¬Å"Technology is a new type of imperialism. Ã¢â¬ Discuss this statement with reference to the impact of technology upon at least one country in the Americas during the twentieth century. (2003)Ã¢â¬Å"By the end of the 1920s the original objectives of the Mexican Revolution had been abandoned. Ã¢â¬ To what extent do you agree with this judgment? (2005)Examine the major stages of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20) and explain the programmes of three of the most important leaders. (2006)Analyse the causes of the Great Depression in one country in the Americas. 2006)Compare and contrast the treatment of indigenous peoples in two countries of the region in the eighteenth century. (2005)Analyse the main features and impact of one cultural or one intellectual development in theAmericas in the period from 1850 to 1919. (2005)For what reasons, and with what results, did railroads develop in one country of the region between 1860 and 1929? Support your answers with examples. (2008)How did Malcolm X and the Black Panthers affect the goals of the Civil Rights Movement?Outline: Examine the major stages of the Mexican Revolution (1910-20) and explain the programmes of three of the most important leaders. (2006) The course of the Mexican Revolution from 1910-1920 is complicated amongst its many leaders and quite frequent shifts in power. With leaders fighting over power of the same country, they each individually had different ideals and tactics. The separation in goals for Mexico, and a lack of Mexican citizen involvement, ultimately determined the temporary leader of Mexico until another one was able to come to power throughout the war.The Mexican Revolution follows a transfer of power from major leaders as Di az to Madero, Madero to Huerta, Huerta to Carranza, and finally Carranza to Obregon. Diaz to Madero * Presidential Succession of 1910 (importance) Madero to Huerta * CouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t switch land issues and keep social order * Lacked army support * 1913 Coups- Huerta gains control of army and kills Madero Huerta to Carranza * US involvement * Tampico Affair and Vera Cruz * Embargo on arms shipments * US did not like HuertaThe programmes of the three most important leaders were MaderoÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidential Succession of 1910, ZapataÃ¢â¬â¢s Plan of Ayala, and finally CarranzaÃ¢â¬â¢s Plan of Guadalupe. Each of these three plans reflected the leader and their primary ideas for Mexico. While Zapata stood by his Plan of Ayala throughout the entire revolution, the Presidential Succession of 1910 only provided a short amount of support for Madero, and the Plan of Guadalupe was successful for Carranza as it was focused on by more than just one leader, as well as it provided a common elemen t in overthrowing Huerta.Presidential Succesion 1910 Madero * Book, well read in Mexico * Called for Diaz to step down and for free elections * Was the first major event in the Mexican Revolution as it was the first widely supported anti-Diaz campaign. Plan of Ayala * Supported by citizens * Mainly in the South * Zapata- Agrarian reform * Appeals to the people * Stood by it throughout the war (Central idea for Zapata) Plan of Guadalupe Carranza February, 1913 * political power, calling for the transfer of power in Mexico. * result of HuertaÃ¢â¬â¢s overthrow of Madero. * rejected Huerta's government and focused on a continuation of Madero's policies.It was recognized by leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Obregon. * It was one of the three most important documents within the Mexican revolution. * The plan gathered Villa, Zapata, and Orozco to help Carranza in the overthrow of Huerta in July These three plans were major events during the course of the Mexican Revolution. They aided t he leaders in their goals for Mexico during a time of controversy and power differences. As one leader lost power, another would quickly gain it. Sometimes working together, and sometimes against, the leaders of the revolution followed a pattern of overthrowing , followed by the assumption of power.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Dilemma - Essay Example He should not receive anything of economic value other than those required or allowed by law because it might influence him in the discharge of his duties as a public official. His actions do not represent the greater good. He is the only one benefiting from the gifts that he receives. Locke would have addressed the problem of the Mayor by saying that he believes that there is no harm in accepting the gifts given to him. He will perceive the Mayor as one who has a conscience and will be guided by his sense of goodwill, so much so that he will not let the gifts affect the discharge of his duties. The answer of Locke differs from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions because one is more aware of the growing incidence of graft and corruption in government nowadays. One believes that the college instructor is pursuing her doctorate degree at the expense of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. She is only concerned about her welfare and does not take into consideration what effect it has on the students. Her actions do not represent the greater good. As a professor, she has a responsibility to enrich and enhance the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learnings. She should at least exert an effort to improve her lectures and keep it updated. If Locke were to address this problem, he would say that it is but natural for the professor to act that way because each individual is driven by self-interest. Locke might say that the professor is just doing that because he is protecting his self-interest and that it does not do any harm to the students anyway. LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics is different than mine because Locke seems to always look at the good side of every individual. He thinks that persons do not mean any harm to anybody. One considers the decision of Todd and Edna to have a child to solve their marital problems is the worst solution to their problem. Having a child will not solve EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s drinking problem and ToddÃ¢â¬â¢s employment problem. EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s drinking problem will have a bad effect on the baby. On
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Innovation and development - Essay Example Innovation is the only strongest weapon that helps an organization or an entrepreneur to develop a strong identity in the market among other rival players. Other than this, it might also be used to develop a huge brand image and equity in the market so as to retain its sustainability in the market among others. Side by side, innovation also acts as the latest buzzword among the corporate organizations such as Google, Apple Inc, Procter & Gamble that helps these companies to remain in the headlines of the newspapers and business articles. Due to which, the reputation and fame of the organization also gets enhanced to a certain extent as compared to others. This might be possible only by gratifying the changing requirements and demands of the customers by presenting them varied types of inventive solutions or products. Thus, innovation is the development or creation of new products, services and technologies that might fulfil the changing needs of the market as well as improve the comp etitive image of the organization. ... Similarly, according to the manager or leader of Apple Inc, Mr. Steve Jobs, innovation means enhancement of the inner morale of the employees that might prove effective in improving organizational portfolio in future. This might be possible only by improving the level of performance of the employees thereby amplifying the productivity and brand value of the organization in the market. Role of innovation in organization and business In business and organizations, innovation acts as the catalyst for the development of inventive products, services or ideas. This might be possible only if the dedication power of the employees is extremely high as compared to others. However, in order to do so, the management of the organization need to enhance the level of motivation and team spirit of the employees thereby recuperating the growth and profit margin of the organization. Side by side, the market share and brand value of the organization might also get enhanced among other rival players as witnessed in case of Apple Inc. Mr. Steve Jobs the most unconventional leader of Apple Inc became successful in convincing Wozniak as well as many other employees to support him in the development of computers in Apple Inc. This proved extremely beneficial for the organization of Apple Inc in future era that amplified its recognition and status in this competitive market among other contenders. Therefore, the entire credit for such an innovation of Apple Inc is mainly due to the best performance of its employees. Thus, employees of the organization are directly related with the concepts and ideas of innovation. Hence, it might be stated that innovation acts as the guiding forces that amplifies the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Social issue - Essay Example However, despite these gay movements, gay marriages are still banned in many states, and society still frowns at and hesitates toÃ accept this Ã¢â¬ËdeviantÃ¢â¬â¢ group. To deny the gay couples the chance to marry and enjoy the full benefits of marriage as accorded to heterosexual couples is unjustified and unjustifiable; in this regard, Gay marriages should be legalized in all the states in the US to allow gay couples toÃ get married without legal or societal restrictions whatsoever. The US constitution provides for equality and liberty with regards to matters pertaining to marriage and family life- these rights have elaborately been captured and protected in the constitution. To deny gay couples a right to exercise these same rights provided for in their own laws is totally discrimination, and it should not be encouraged. Gay couples deserve to enjoy the rights of freedom of choice with regards to their sexual orientations without discrimination. In addition to this, marriage is also one of the basic human rights, and thus, same sex or heterosexual marriage should be accorded to all, and sundry. Just as the interracial marriages, same sex marriages deserve protection, and should not be discriminated against denying same sex couples a right to marry is denying them their basic human right as provided for in the constitution. Allowing same sex marriages is bound to curb a lot more other social issues such as prostitution, infidelity, divorce and the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS studies have shown that such vices have been on the decline in many states that have legalized same sex marriages. For instance, the state of Massachusetts registered a 21% drop in divorce rates after legalizing gay marriages (Ã¢â¬Å"Should gay marriage be legal?Ã¢â¬ ). In this regard, it is clear that instead of hurting heterosexual marriages as it is widely feared, gay marriages will in fact boost the marriage institution
BI - Business Intelligence - Essay Example RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s main imports include foodstuffs, steel, machinery and equipment, construction as well as petroleum products. Their main trading partners include Kenya, Germany, China, and Belgium. GDP (PPP): $16.4 billion, 5.0% growth, 6.9% 5-year annual growth, and $1538 per capita. The rate of unemployment I Rwanda is 0.6%, inflation 4.2 %. RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s major industries are industries that process their agricultural produce for export to the foreign markets. In the past five years, RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic freedom has increased by 2.1. This has been contributed by 20-point improvement from corruption 15-point freedom investment (Rwanda, 2014). One of the key factors that have greatly contributed to fast growth of this countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is the internet use in both local as well as international trade. Most of their imports especially construction and petroleum materials are ordered via the internet. They also get international markets for their products through internet use (Aspray, 2008). Rwanda has established several shopping sites that are used for local and international trade. Examples of these online sites include Gemeya.com, Gurisha.com, Shop4rwanda.com, Comfort Rwanda, and Beautyofrwanda.com. These sites are important to RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy because they are able to sell and buy via these sites and it saves time. These sites are affordable for most citizens and fewer restrictions are placed on their use (Black, 2002). After goods have been purchased online and imported to Rwanda, there are different taxes that the owner of purchased goods is supposed to pay. For goods like vehicles that have been purchased online, the owner is supposed to pay four types of taxes: value added tax (VAT) 18%, customs duty 25%, withholding tax 5%, and consumption tax that has different rates. Uses of technology in business are important because transactions are done within a short time. It is
Friday, July 26, 2019
Functions of Management in Different Spheres - Assignment Example Therefore, movie-on-demand is a competitive substitute for the blockbuster movies. The major stakeholders of the university include; foundation members, the board of trustees, business and industry. The students are the major stakeholders in the university because they influence the long and short-term goals of the university. Managing diversity in the organization can be done by developing an organizational culture, which synchronizes the diverse cultures into the organizational policy and operation. In addition, cultural integration practices can be used to develop the necessary group cohesion. The manager can employ cultural acceptance to avoid conflict between individuals. Lack of accountability is the major barrier to goal setting. However, as a manager, the development of step plans to achieve the set goals. However, the accountability is the vital aspect of goal setting. Start the business from scratch offer the opportunity to understand the business effectively thereby reducing the chances of collapse. Proper planning of a new business venture is easy compared to a takeover business. However, take over business has an advantage of having already set capital and infrastructure outlay. Business engineering is the process of redesigning the business operations in order to improve performance and develop success in the whole process. Re-engineering can be integrated as a product of competition or the introduction of new products by the company which is intended to improve the business performance The internal recruitment process is simple and easy to be employed. The staff does not need to be oriented to the company as such they can assume the new roles with ease. However, it reduces the pool of choice while also limiting injection of new ideas. External recruitment offers the opportunity to inject new blood into the system thusÃ allowing for new ideas to be developed. External recruitment offers the company the opportunity to add new employees with better skills. However, the major problem with external recruitment is time constraints and the need for further training of the new stuff on the company details and system of operation.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Exploring the development and scope of public health - Essay Example This research paper aims at analyzing the scope of alcoholism, and identification of ways of solving the problem through research. In the UK, various factors have been pointed to affect social health, individual wellbeing and the ultimate health of an individual. These factors include increase in chronic disease such as cancer, diabetes and obesity. The second one is about the concentration of the aged and the lone dwellers in the UK. Then finally the trend linked to smoking and alcohol abuse (Earle, 2004). The work at hand focuses on the alcohol abuse, describing the scope and nature of this social problem and including suggested research approaches to amend the situation. In the British community, consumption of alcohol is a normal practice that contributes significantly to the British economy. Many individuals take alcohol very responsibly while certain portions of the populations are also entangled by alcohol abuse (Earle & Sidell, 2007). One heard many things about the harmful consumption of alcohol and its negative impacts on the economy, the society and the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Furthermore, abuse of alcohol has been observed to cause a variety of public health concerns including violence, poisoning, chronic diseases such as cirrhosis and certain cancers and accidents (Morgan, 2012). The effects of alcohol misuse in the society include lower economic status as a result of reduced productivity, frequent sick days and unemployment (Zuccato et al., 2008). Added to this, social harm occurs through high rate of divorce and rampant cases of domestic violence which are perpetuated by the individuals with high dependence on alcohol. Alcoholics are likely to be motivated to do crime and anti-social behaviors. All of these situations consequently result to higher burdens in the National Health System as characterized by the immediate demand for primary care linked to cases of alcohol-related-hospital admissions (Unwin, 2007) The Home Office and the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Personality - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"The Naked FaceÃ¢â¬ demonstrates that personality and physical appearance directly influence each other through their two-way feedback system. Paul Ekman, a psychologist from San Francisco, studied human facial expressions with Wallace Friesen. They contacted Silvan Tomkins, another professor of Psychology at Princeton and Rutger. Ekman showed Tomkins close-up pictures of two tribes, the peace-loving South Fore and the hostile and homosexuality-practicing Kukukuku (Gladwell 3). Tomkins correctly interpreted the personalities of these two tribes, when he said that the South Fore were Ã¢â¬Å"a sweet, gentle people, very indulgent, very peaceful," while the Kukukuku were Ã¢â¬Å"violent, and there is lots of evidence to suggest homosexualityÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell 3). ... These researchers also studied medical textbooks that identified facial muscles, and they determined the specific muscular movements that the face can produce. They recognized forty-three movements and labeled them as Ã¢â¬Å"action units or A.U.Ã¢â¬ (Gladwell 3). After that, they wrote the Facial Action Coding System, or FACS, which included all A.U. and the rules for Ã¢â¬Å"readingÃ¢â¬ them. Their study emphasizes that it is possible to know who people are from their faces only. Their research reveals another perplexing finding: people's expressions also affect their body. When people consciously project happiness, their bodies also show signs of happiness: Ã¢â¬Å"In the facial-feedback system, an expression you do not even know that you have can create an emotion you did not choose to feelÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell 5). Friesen and Ekman implicate that appearance can also influence people's emotions, and perhaps their personalities too. Ã¢â¬Å"The Story of My BodyÃ¢â¬ disagrees with Ã¢â¬Å"The Naked Face,Ã¢â¬ because it believes that physical appearance can impact personality, only when people allow it to. Cofer says that as a child, she was quite bony and small compared to American or white counterparts. As a result, her peers called her Ã¢â¬Å"Skinny BonesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Shrimp.Ã¢â¬ Even when people taunted her, however, she remained emotionally strong, because she focused on her academic skills instead. She decided to be a Ã¢â¬Å"brainÃ¢â¬ and not an athlete. Still, how people saw her also shaped her personality. For instance, when Cofer had chicken pox, she scratched them and had permanent scars all over her face. A nurse told her that her scars would Ã¢â¬Å"alwaysÃ¢â¬ seem to other people that Ã¢â¬Å"a mad cat had plunged its claws deep into [her] skin.Ã¢â¬ This remark made her feel inferior and she
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Much To Learn From History - Essay Example On many levels through my historical observation of such readings, I have been forever impacted by the diverse fibers that have made up the collective historical record. I found very early on that history would be the right subject matter for me to study. The chance to enter the historical record through the written works of many other historians had and continues to have a great impact on me as I continue my quest for an increased understanding of everything that has to do with history. It is quite empowering to me to be able to read such instrumental works that, in considerable ways, have aided in the formation of an understanding about that which happened between 1865 until the present day. To have the chance to read these works and have the resulting imagery painted in my mind from the words I have read has meant so much to me as a historian and as a person as I seek to learn more about history's offerings. From everything that I have learned personally, I feel that any student in school, or someone who wishes to learn outside of an organized setting, can take away many great things from studying this issue. A student of history can take away a great appreciation and exposure to the many things that have occurred throughout the time that paint a bigger picture of understanding the vast nature of intricacies which are intertwined with each and every historical event that has occurred between 1865 until now. The unique chance to have the opportunity as a student of history to enter the mind, motivation, as well as the circumstances.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Library Statement of Goals Essay I have submitted my application for admission into the Kent State School of Library and Information Science as an avenue for professional growth within my current career. As a former Spanish teacher and currently a computer technology teacher, it is important to pursue the MLIS as current librarians seek retirement and technology continues to infiltrate libraries across our nation. I am currently interested in pursuing the MLIS plus the K-12 licensure in order to serve in an urban school library setting. My current teaching assignment of computer technology lends itself to a smooth transition from the classroom to a librarian position as our school district places more emphasis on digital media. I remain fully committed to providing instruction to students; however, with teachers and school librarians retiring in droves, I fear that our schools will be left with overworked teachers and no librarians in our schools. By completing the MLIS degree, I will be accomplishing an additional career objective. I remain committed to my career goals that were previously established many years ago. My first goal was accomplished by completing my undergraduate course of study at the University of Cincinnati. My second career goal was to obtain my M. Ed. In School Administration and I accomplished that particular goal in the year 2000. My third goal, albeit somewhat personal, was to earn my private pilotÃ¢â¬â¢s license, and I successfully completed that task in 2001. My fourth career oriented goal was to transition from teaching Spanish to teaching computer science with an ultimate goal of finishing the required courses to earn the MLIS degree. I am currently in the middle of this goal. After speaking to our retiring librarian, she suggested that I apply my technology expertise and apply for the vacant school librarian position. Our current librarian highly encouraged me to seek at least the minimum courses for K-12 certification. After speaking with Dr. Sarah Harper and educating myself about the MLIS program and learning about the additional career opportunities associated with the MLIS, I have decided to pursue this additional graduate degree. The role of the librarian appears to be shifting from the traditional aspects of managing a library to more of the role as a librarian media technologist. An important current issue of the library is to also serve as a digital media center due to the increased technology needs facing libraries. I am greatly interested in this transition as many school librarians almost double as the digital media technologist. Colleges and universities are also adopting the model of librarian media technologist to enhance the needs of such educational institutions. As our digital technology library needs grow, I foresee a point where the current traditional school librarian could potentially be at a slight disadvantage without minimal technology background. I firmly support digital media; however, print media is equally as important. It will be the role of the librarian to determine which media shall remain in print edition for students, and which media will transition to digital media. Another current issue that is important is to fully integrate the school library as an extension of the classroom. It is important to fully utilize the library beyond the common routine of Ã¢â¬Å"pulling booksÃ¢â¬ for a specific course. Instead, it would be beneficial to teachers and students if the library were to be established as an academic department. Establishing meaningful collaboration between the library personnel and teachers will foster a learning environment conducive to learning. As a school librarian, a goal should be to create a library setting that embeds the role of the library into the classrooms. Instead of thinking of the library as an independent space of a school, the library now serves as an extension of the classroom. However, it is equally important to keep in mind, the school librarian is not able to provide content specific instruction, but rather, instruction on how to locate the resources required for the specific content. It is important for the librarian to serve as an instructional partner in the learning process. Finally, another current issue that I believe is important is increasing the mobility of the library. Technology has advanced to where it is no longer required to leave the house and go to the library to seek and acquire information. With nearly all of our students owning a mobile device, whether it is a cellular telephone, iPad, Nook, mobile devices are changing the way information is delivered and accessed. While students easily have access to the internet through mobile devices, it is equally important that students have access to digital records housed in the library. Furthermore, many library users have learned the convenience of downloadable e-books. As teachers, students, and others navigate away from the traditional book delivered in print, it will be important for the librarian to explore new ideas and collaboratively implement a plan to cost effectively deliver more data via mobile devices.
Prison Term Policy Recommendation Essay As the criminologist advisor to a member of the Pennsylvania state legislature, I have been selected to conduct research for a bill that would double the maximum prison term for anyone convicted of armed robbery. The bill is popular however it is unknown if it will do much good. It is my job to make recommendations in regards to whether the bill being voted on will be beneficial to everyone in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The prison term policies are sentencing guidelines that are created by Congress and the State Legislature to provide judges with bases for sentencing those individuals found guilty of committing a crime to ensure that each person is treated equal without discrimination (sentencing guidelines, 2010). There are four offenses that make up what is known as violent crime which are murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. According to the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program a violent crime is any crime that involves force or threat of force to others (Department of Justice, 2006). Currently the Commonwealth of PennsylvaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s prison terms for armed robbery are as follows: for the first offense of a violent crime a minimum of five years, for a second offense of a violent crime a minimum of 10 years, and for the third offense of a violent crime a minimum of 25 years total confinement or life imprisonment which is accordance with 42 Pa. C.S. Ã §9714 (Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing, 2008). PennsylvaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Uniform Crime Reporting tracks all forms of Robbery together. According to the Pennsylvania Uniform Crime Reporting System, in 2008 there were 18,751 reported robbery offenses which is equivalent to 51 per day or one every 28 minutes and 2 seconds (PA UCRS, 2008). These figures showed a decrease of 2.5% from 2007 which had 19,239 reported robberies (PA UCRS, 2008). Robbery made up 5.4% of the crime index and 37.2%Ã of the violent crime index in Pennsylvania in the year 2008 (PA UCRS, 2008). The reported robbery rates in Pennsylvania in 2008 were 150.6 per 100,000 inhabitants (PA UCRS, 2008). Recidivism is defined as a habitual relapse into crime, which is a problem that is faced within the criminal justice system. Pennsylvania tracks information on inmates released in order to find the recidivism rates. In 2002 Pennsylvania Department of Corrections released 1,711 inmates charged with robbery and within three years 46.6% returned to prison, which was a decline from 2000 when 1,776 inmates charged for robbery were released and 52.8% of the inmates returned within three years (PADOC, 2006). A study was conducted in Italy in 2006 when the Collective Clemency Bill set all inmates with less than three years remaining on their sentence free however if the inmates were convicted of another crime within the next five years, the remainder of their sentence would be added onto the new sentence. This allowed studies to be conducted to see if longer prison terms would deter criminals. Studies showed that increasing the sentence by 50% should reduce recidivism rates by about 35% in seven months (Crime/Punishment, 2010). With inmates comes a bill to cover the housing, feeding, and medical costs of each inmate. The cost to house a prisoner in the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (PADOC) is $ 69 per day (Barnes, 2010). In July 2010 the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections housed 51,281 inmates, at $69 per day that amounts to $3,538,389 per day or $1,291,151,985 per year (PADOC, 2010). There are multiple benefits of the bill being passed to double the maximum prison term for those convicted of armed robbery. The study that was conducted in Italy shows that longer prison sentences lowers the recidivism rates among offenders, which over time would reduce the population of the already over populated prisons. The criminals would be off the streets for a longer period of time preventing them from committing future crimes. Longer prison sentences could be a deterrent for some criminals. Robbery is one of the top two violent crimes committed in Pennsylvania and the longer sentence imposed on those criminals may lower the rate of armed robbery however it could cause an increase in other crimes. If the bill were passed and new prisons built to accommodate all inmates there would be more jobs available such as corrections officers, nurses, doctors, dentists, psychologists, and office personnel. These job openings would not only assist with job market, but also with having mo reÃ tax payers to assist with the money needed for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania budget. There are also multiple disadvantages to the bill being passed to double the maximum prison term for those convicted of armed robbery. Pennsylvania prisons are overpopulated as it is and by imposing longer sentences the problem is going to continue to get worse. As discussed earlier the prison population in June 2010 was 51,281 however the occupational bed capacity of the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections is only 43,872 (PADOC, 2010). The prisons are already operating at 116.9% of capacity and by passing this bill those rates are going to increase at a more rapid pace than they already are (PADOC, 2010). As discussed earlier the cost to house an inmate in Pennsylvania Department of Corrections is $69 per day which if this bill is passed a much larger budget is going to be required because inmates are going to be housed for a longer period of time. The need may arise for more prisons due to the longer prison terms which would require a much larger budget. With more prisons comes the need for more employees to operate those prisons which also is going to have an effect on the prison budget. Where is the money going to come from to meet the increase in the budget? The tax payers are the ones that are going to have to suffer to make the funding available for the prison system budget. Other crime rates may rise as a domino effect because criminals may turn to other crimes that are known to carry a lighter sentence if they are caught. If the bill is passed it is not required that judges sentence those convicted of the crime to the maximum sentence. Judges are required to look at mitigating and aggravating circumstances when sentencing individuals found guilty of committing crimes. Judges look at prior criminal history, personal life situation, was anyone hurt during the crime, or sometimes the remorse the person shows toward the crime they committed. This bill could be beneficial in the cases of habitual offenders because there would be stricter sentencing for the first offense rather than having to wait until the second or even third offense. As we all know with anything there is pros and cons. There appears to be more cons in this situation than there are pros which should make the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania legislature take a second look into whether or not passing this bill is going to be the most beneficial thing for the Commonwealth as a whole. I would find that it would not be beneficial to double the maximum sentence for those individualsÃ charged with committing armed robbery. The evidence shows that it would cost the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania more money to double the sentence for armed robbery. The evidence also proves that close to 50% of people convicted of armed robbery are going to reoffend which is going to bring them back to the criminal justice system and with one offense already committed they will receive a longer sentence the second time around. This also allows for those who are actually capable of being rehabilitated to have the chance to prove themselves without having to spend 10 years in pri son. References Barnes, T. (2010). Post-Gazette. Pa. sentencing guidelines eyed. Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10002/1025303-454.stm Crime/Punishment (2010). Do stiffer sentences act as a crime deterrent? Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://crime.about.com/od/prevent/a/deterrence.htm Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation (2006). Crime in the United States 2004. Violent Crime. Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius_04/offenses_reported/violent_crime/index.html Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing (2008). Retrieved August 31, 2010 from http://pcs.la.psu.edu/guidelines/sentencing/sentencing-statutes-and-programs/related-statutes/mandatory-minimum-sentences/SentMandMin122008.pdf Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (2010). Monthly population report June 2010. Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://www.cor.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/research___statistics/10669/monthly_population_reports/568195 Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (2006). Recidivism in Pennsylvania State Correctional Institutions 1999-2004. Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://www.cor.st ate.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/research___statistics/10669/annual_reports/567085 Pennsylvania Uniform Crime Reporting System (2008). Annual Report Robbery. Retrieved on August 31, 2010 from http://ucr.psp.state.pa.us/UCR/Reporting/Annual/AnnualFrames.asp?year=2008 Sentencing guidelines (2010). Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.willdefend.com/CM/Custom/TOCSentencingGuidelines.asp
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Deming Theory Of Management Information Technology Essay Quality became an important business issue due to the increase in competitiveness in world markets. The total quality management approach introduced by W. Edwards Deming used by several organizations in the world to improve their operations and the processes used in all functional areas of their organizations. The basis of TQM is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process, increase customer satisfaction and improve product/service quality, productivity, and competitiveness by improving communications with stakeholders (customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders and society). The application of TQM can vary from business to business, even across the same industry. William Edwards Deming (1900 1993) was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. He was widely credited with improving production in the United States during the Cold War, although he was well known for his work in Japan. Deming made a significant contribution to Japans later reputation for innovative high-quality products and its economic power. He was regarded for his impact on Japanese manufacturing and business. Despite he was being considered as a hero in Japan, he got a widespread recognition in the U.S. at the time of his death. During Demings work in Japan in 1940s, his message to Japans chief executives was improving quality will reduce expenses while increasing productivity and market share. A number of Japanese manufacturers adopted his techniques widely and experienced an increased level of quality and productivity. After some time quality prize was introduced under Demings name, which is given to companies have experienced a major influence directly and indirectly on the development of quality control and quality management in Japan. Dr. W. Edwards Deming taught that by adopting appropriate principles of management, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs by reducing waste, rework, staff wasted time and increase customer loyalty. The key is to practice continence improvement and think of manufacturing as a system, not as bits and pieces. The Deming Theory of Management is a management philosophy based on four principles: Appreciation for systems. Knowledge of variation. Theory of knowledge. Psychology. Deming was well known for his model introduced for problem solving based on the Japanese approach of quality. The model was called as Deming cycle or PDCA (plan, do, check, action). He also introduced 14 points used to reach TQM in organizations as follows: Create constancy of purpose to improve product and service. Adopt new philosophy for new economic age by management learning responsibilities and taking leadership for change. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality by building quality into the product. End awarding business on price; instead, minimize total cost. Improve constantly the system of production and service to improve quality and productivity and to decrease costs. Institute training on the job. Institute leadership to help do a better job. Drive out fear so that all may work effectively for the organization. Break down barriers between departments; research, design and sales; therefore all teams should work together to resolve problems in production and use. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and numerical targets for the workforce. Eliminate quotas or work standards, and management by objectives or substitute leadership. Remove barriers that rob people of their right to pride of workmanship; hourly workers, management and engineering; eliminate annual or merit ratings and management by objectives. Institute a vigorous education and self-improvement program. Put everyone in the organization to work to accomplish the transformation. (Ahmed and Zairi, 2006) Characteristics of Successful TQM Companies based on Deming theory are common to companies that successfully implement TQM in their daily operations are as follows: Strive for owner/customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction. Strive for accident free work places. Recognize the need for measurement and fact based decision making. Arrange for employees to become involved in helping the company improve. Train extensively. Work hard at improving communication inside and outside the company. Use teams of employees to improve processes. Place a strong emphasis on the right kind of leadership. Involve subcontractors and suppliers in continuous improvement. Strive for continuous improvement. (http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/5034-314271-total-quality-management-tqm-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/, 2010) Joseph Moses Juran (1904 2008) was a 20th century management consultant who was mainly remembered as a caller for quality and quality management, writing several influential books on those subjects. During his 1966 visit to Japan, Juran learned about the Japanese concept of Quality Circles which he actively used in the West. Juran also acted as a matchmaker between U.S. and Japanese companies looking for introductions to each other. Juran was widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management as he pushed for the education and training of managers. He was also credited for illuminating the core problem in reforming business quality. For Juran, human relations problems were the main issue in most of the organizations. Resistance to change was identified by Juran as the root cause of quality issues. He developed the Jurans trilogy, an approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial processes: Quality planning. Identify who are the customers. Determine the needs of those customers. Translate those needs into our language. Develop a product that can respond to those needs. Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs. Quality control. Develop a process which is able to produce the product. Optimize the process. Quality improvement. Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection. Transfer the process to Operations. http://www.70620.com/tag/joseph-m-juran-philosophy-characteristics Malcolm Baldrige (1922 1987) was working as United States Secretary of Commerce and then confirmed by the United States Senate in 1981. During his life journey he played a major role in developing and carrying out Administration trade policy. Baldrige was a supporter of quality management as a key to U.S. wealth and long term strength. He took an initiative in developing the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act of 1987 and helped draft one of the early versions. In recognition of his contributions, the congress named the annual quality award under his name Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. This award contributed to long-term improvement in economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in government. There are seven Criteria Categories that cover that was set by Baldrige in every management system: 1. Leadership 2. Strategic Planning 3. Customer Focus 4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 5. Workforce Focus 6. Process Management 7. Results He also divided the way of how the apply the above criteria based on the work segment: one for education, one for healthcare, and one for business, nonprofits, and government organizations. The Baldrige Criteria are built on 11 interrelated core values and concepts: Visionary leadership Customer-driven excellence Organizational and personal learning Valuing workforce members and partners Agility Focus on the future Managing for innovation Management by fact Societal responsibility Focus on results and creating value Systems perspective These core values and concepts are embedded in high-performing organizations. They are the foundation for integrating key performance and operational requirements within a framework. (http://www.baldrige.com/criteria/baldrige-core-values , 2010) Deming, Juran and Baldridge difference in their quest for Quality: Each one of the above quality gurus is looking into quality from different aspect. They all are working to improve the USA organizations to get better output of products and services. Deming was focusing on the use of statistical quality control. Juran was focusing on managing for quality and started Quality Management courses concentrating on top and middle management of organizations. Baldridge was focusing his on management system to reach performance excellence. He was working on developing the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act. This was the key to introduce the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award that recognizes U.S. businesses that excel in quality achievement and quality management. If we compare Baldrige with other types of standards we will find that the Baldrige Criteria serve as a comprehensive framework for performance excellence. They focus on business results as well as organizational improvement and innovation systems. Lean and Six Sigma methodologies drive waste and inefficiencies out of processes, and ISO 9000 is a series of standards for an efficient quality conformance system. Overall, ISO 9000 registration covers less than 10 percent of the Baldrige Criteria (http://www.nist.gov/baldrige/improve.cfm , 2010). Quality model in practice: In my opinion Malcolm Baldrige quality model is the one that it is in practice due to different reasons: Baldrige developed the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act since 1987. Introduction of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award that became a method to motivate U.S. organizations to develop their quality based on a set of standards. It focuses on management system to reach performance excellence. It focuses on business results, organizational improvement and innovation systems. Quality Awards: One of the well known quality awards is the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award. It recognizes U.S. businesses that excel in quality achievement and quality management. There are different purposes for the award are: To promote recognition of the importance of quality. To recognize quality related achievements of U.S. organizations. To publicize strategies that improves quality. This award is providing a detailed feedback for additional step the organizations has to take care of in case they would like to meet todays quality standards. The candidates, selected are going through three stages review process are: Evaluation of written examinations submitted by candidate. Site visits to companies with high scores on the written examination. Final overall evaluation. (http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000218317 , 2010) They are assed based on seven Criteria Categories that was set by Baldrige are: 1. Leadership 2. Strategic Planning 3. Customer Focus 4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management 5. Workforce Focus 6. Process Management 7. Results The above criteria will asses every single detail of the organization in order to check their quality excellence. Even if the organizations do not want to go for the process of the award, they can go through the award documents, use the awards assessment criteria to check their status and then adapt the applicable quality model on their process in order to reach the quality standard. Conclusion: Quality has become an important approach that organizations are taking care of while developing their process of work and managing their resources. Quality gurus have introduced several types of management improvement tools to reach quality excellence. Moreover, awards were introduced to check organizations process and motivate them towards quality excellence. REFERANCE Abdel Ahmed and Mohamed Zairi and Ali Asseri, 2006. TQM Fundamentals: Chapter 1 The Quality Planning Process. Hamdan Bin Mohammed e-University. Baldrige core values. Retrieved on April 18.2010 from http://www.baldrige.com/criteria/baldrige-core-values/ Joseph M. Juran. (2010, March 10). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:29, April 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joseph_M._Juranoldid=348984076 KC 1.5.3 Quality Pioneers Joseph M. Juran. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.70620.com/tag/joseph-m-juran-philosophy-characteristics Malcolm Baldrige, Jr.. (2010, April 6). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:33, April 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Malcolm_Baldrige,_Jr.oldid=354335958 PDCA. (2010, April 14). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:46, April 14, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=PDCAoldid=355860177 Total quality management. (2010, April 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:41, April 16, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Total_quality_managementoldid=355765150 Total Quality Management a continuous improvement process, 2010. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/5034-314271-total-quality-management-tqm-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/ What is Baldrige? Retrieved on April 18, 2010 from http://www.baldrige.com/baldrige-process/what-is-baldrige/ Y.K. Shetty, The quest for quality excellence: lessons from the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award. Retrieved on April 20, 2010 from http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000218317
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The Roaring Twenties The decade of 1920-1929 was a time of great change, reform, improvement, adjustment and alteration of everything Americans had come to rely on. In other words everything changed. Not one part of common life was unaffected. Exciting new events happened in sports, entertainment, science, politics, communication and transportation. It was the age of prohibition, it was the age of prosperity, and it was the age of downfall. The twenties were the age of everything. It has been called the decade of enjoyment, employment, and for some, disappointment. The 20's were a decade to remember and it had an impact on the people living through it. During the 1920s the United States was in an economic high point. Following World War I people had more money to spend due to the wartime boom in the economy. People were able to buy products on credit, and pay small installments later. This process allowed people more freedom to purchase items, such as refrigerators, radios, and cars, when previously they had not been able to. The 1920s got its reputation as the Ã¢â¬Å"Roaring TwentiesÃ¢â¬ from the economy in part because the economy was booming, and people were purchasing products on credit and stocks on margin. All this exchange of currency created a boom era or a Ã¢â¬Å"RoaringÃ¢â¬ period of time. In sports, athletes were being identified as heroes for the first time in history. This was the time of great athletes such as Babe Ruth. American Football reached the professional leagu...
Friday, July 19, 2019
King Oedipus as The Classical Greek Tragic Hero In his Poetics, Aristotle defined the term 'tragedy' as 'a man not preeminently virtuous and just, whose misfortune, however, is brought upon him not by vice or depravity, but by some error in judgement' the change in the hero's fortune must not be from misery to happiness, but on the contrary, from happiness to misery'. From this definition, he further expanded it by defining the profile of the Classical Greek tragic hero, basing it on what he considered the best tragedy ever written, Sophocle's Oedipus Rex. He felt that a tragedy should comprise of the hero's goodness and superiority, a tragic flaw in which the hero makes fatal errors in judgement which eventually lead to his downfall, a tragic realisation in which the main character understand how he has unwittingly helped to bring about his own destruction and the absence of freewill in the tragic hero's life. Oedipus was a good ruler: just, compassionate and sympathetic. When the priests of Thebes approached him, pleading for help on behalf of the people of Thebes who were suffering from death and famine. Oedipus immediately agreed and promised them that he would do his best in solving the problems, saying that his heart bore ?the weight of his own? and ?all of his people?s sorrows?. He promised to ?bring everything to light?. Oedipus was also a filial son. When he first learnt about the prophecy in Corinth, he was unwilling to stay and left immediately, in case circumstances would ever lead him to kill the King and marry the Queen of Corinth, whom he had then thought of as his natural parents. Oedipus? superiority was also evident in the play, not only through his ranking of the king of Thebes, which automatically placed him far above the nobles, priests and common people, but also through his intelligence. When the Sphinx ?plagued? the city by blocking the city gates and eating those who could not answer its riddle, which was "what is it that goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at midday, and three feet in the evening?" Oedipus was the only person able to chase the Sphinx away with the correct answer of ?man?. This led to him becoming the king of Thebes which in turn led to his superiority of ranking. However, Oedipus was not a perfect man. His tragic flaw was that of stubbornness, impulsiveness and most of all, his grandiosity (wh... ...d that Oedipus find Lauis? killer. This sparked off a whole chain of events which led to Oedipus finding out the truth, Jocasta killing herself, Oedipus blinding himself and finally leaving Thebes. The man who once was envied and respected was now an outcast, despised and hated. A tragedy must be an imitation of life in the form of a serious story that is complete in itself. In other words, the story must be realistic and narrow in focus. A good tragedy would evoke pity and fear in its viewers, causing the viewers to experience a feeling of catharsis. Catharsis, a Greek word in origin, means "purgation" or "purification". Running through the gamut of these strong emotions would leave viewers feeling elated, in the same way we often claim that "a good cry" would make a person feel better. Oedipus Rex is a perfect example of what Aristotle meant by a tragedy. It talks about a man who has no say in what path his life would take, a man who once had everything. He was a king, a good husband and father, a man contented with his lot in life who eventually lost his status, wife, children and home. He evokes sympathy simply because he was not evil or foolish, just human and fallible.
Response Paper #2: 'The Birthmark'; 1. Our society tends to be obsessed with the idea of physical perfection. How does our society manifest that obsession? How is the 'Birthmark'; an early version of our modern obsession with physical perfection? Our society has many ways of manifesting its obsession with physical perfection. In our society people go to extreme lengths to achieve perfection. The 'Birthmark';, written more than a century ago, is an early version of our modern obsession with physical perfection. Society manifests its obsession with physical perfection by having surgical procedures done on daily basis. These surgeries allow for almost any cosmetic transformation. For example a person can have anything from removing a birthmark to inserting breast implants to having a tummy tuck done on their body. Society manifests their obsession with physical perfection by having these procedures done to them. These procedures enable society to achieve 'perfection';, much like Georgiana in the 'Birthmark';. In the 'Birthmark';, a story that is more than a century old Georgiana and her husband Alymar are searching for physical perfection, much like we do today. In addition they manifested their obsession with physical perfection much like we do today. Georgiana was born with a crimson birthmark in the shape of a hand. This birthmark was on her cheek. One day Georgiana discovers that this birthmark 'shocks'; her husband and he is deeply bothered by it. Georgiana finally realizes this after Alymar says 'Georgiana . . . has it ever occurred to you that the mark upon your cheek might be removed?'; After discussing the birthmark several times with her husband, a talented scientist, Georgiana decides to have it removed by him. It is never stated in full detail exactly how Alymar is going to remove this birthmark, we assume that it will be a surgical procedure. At one point in the story Georgina says to her husband 'If there be the remote possibility of it .
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Pursuit of Happiness Happiness is not one thing; it means different things in different places, different societies, and different cultural contexts. There are multiple Ã¢â¬Å"pursuits of happinessÃ¢â¬ . It's impossible to define Ã¢â¬Å"happinessÃ¢â¬ . It's left to each of us to define what Ã¢â¬Å"happinessÃ¢â¬ is. Happiness cannot be achieved in minutes it comes from the pursuit of happiness, Working towards and achieving goals. Pursuit of happiness differs from person to person and from culture to culture. Diener and his colleagues (Diener et al. 2003) believe life evaluations are important to the quality of life in all societies because it is hard to imagine either a good life or a good society without a positive sense of SWB (positive psychology pg114). However, they argue that every culture has set values, and goals that people use to evaluate their happiness. Culture refers to beliefs, social norms, religious background, these characteristics shared by people in a place and time for everyday existence. Understanding the culture differences will allow you to understand the differences in of happiness.For the most part each culture has certain values and goals that are looked upon to be the acceptable norm for happiness and that is how happiness is measures. The media, parents, schools, peers influence the way people think, act, and feel towards a successful life. The general population that surrounds you influences people's ideas about the meaning of happiness and how to achieve it. Comparing the traditional American perspective on happiness with the traditional Asian perspective on happiness, by cultural and historical factors that contribute to happiness.Americans are individualistic culture which means the people are primary focus is that of themselves and their immediate families. In contrast to Asians, which are, collectivistic cultures, where the members are concerned more with the well being of the group rather then their own well-being. On a verage, people living in wealthy nations are happier than those living in less wealthy nations. The untied States is near the top of the income measure, 6th in life satisfaction. Japanese like and have high income, but only moderate in subjective well-being.China ranks very low on income measure and higher then Japanese in subjective well being measure. Over the past 25 years, history of international surveys have not changed the ranking have been quite stable. | Asia collectivist culture characteristics traits: * Each person is encouraged to be an active player in society, to do what is best for society as a whole rather than themselves. * The rights of families, communities, and the collective supersede those of the individual. * Rules promote unity, brotherhood, and selflessness. Working with others and cooperating is the norm; everyone supports each other. * As a community, family or nation more than as an individual. * United States Individualism cultures characteristics traits : * Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ identity. * Promotes individual goals, initiative and achievement. * Individual rights are seen as being the most important. Rules attempt to ensure self-importance and individualism. * Independence is valued; there is much less of a drive to help other citizens or communities than in collectivism. * Relying or being dependent on others is frequently seen as shameful. People are encouraged to do things on their own, to rely on themselves. * The stereotype of a Ã¢â¬Ëgood person' in collectivist cultures is trustworthy, honest, generous, and sensitive, all characteristics that are helpful to people working in groups. In contrast, a Ã¢â¬Ëgood person' in individualist cultures is more assertive and strong, characteristics helpful for competing. Asian members rate happiness and life satisfaction on the lower end of the scale. They do not think of their life as being happy or sad, satisfying or dissatisfying it just is what it is.Believing emotional feelings are te mporary they live in the now rather then wanting more for tomorrow. In Asian cultures, regard how others view you and necessary related to how they view themselves. Positive feelings occur when pleasing others, fulfilling social expectations. Achieving goals that enhance interdependence is directly related to happiness in collectivist cultures. For Americans positive feelings are strongly related to goal achievement. Achieving goals enhances our independence giving us a sense of pride and accomplishment.That feeling is important to Americans in reaching happiness promoting mutual trust and support in relationships is directly related to happiness and well being within the Asian culture. In individualistic cultures, a shared belief in the importance of feeling good about oneself promotes self-enhancement and social exchanges characterized by mutual approval and praise. Considering the wide ranging influence of culture on peoples feelings, thought, and behaviors (Markus ;amp; Kitayama , 1991), different types of persuasive messages may very well influence people differently in cultures as distinct as north America and east Asia.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Dingo Makes Us gentlemans gentleman Life and Land in an Australian Ab current Culture indite by Deborah Rose domestic fowl (1990) is considered to be the prototypical in a equiprobable series of three books loveing the Australian ancient plurality of Lingara and Yarralin. These places argon two from the capital of Seychelles River v solelyey in the Northern dominion of Australia. tinkers dam lived for ii familys in these communities. hushings work is an original ethnography that indigenous massess experiences into conversations about unreassuring issues of environmental c ar and genial justness.The creators involvement with the nations experiences and their action in the instauration brings her to this examination of a multi-centred poetics of gain and brio. The Research annulus undertook the research because she valuated to sh be her experiences and contemplations with the Australian aboriginal hatful of Lingara and Yarralin on a two-year consequence, f rom 1980 to 1982. theoretic/Practical Impetus to the Research boos work is practically epochal due to its br otherwisely and environmental applications. More all oer, annulus has similarly discussed in occurrence the aspirations.According to Penrith (1996), the daydream has diverse meanings for non-homogeneous primary volume. She insist that Dreamings is a multi viewed framing of knowledge, practices and conviction that originate from stories of creation, and that controls all(prenominal) physical and un fuckingny facet of autochthonic carriage. More over, the Dreaming embarks the rules for societal behaviour, the bodily structures of purchase antitheticiate, and the ceremonies carried out so as to deal the life of the convey (Morny, 1995). The Dreaming enjoin the manner stack lived and how they must demeanour themselves since those who defy the rules were penalized.According to Penrith (1996), the Dreaming is frequently utilized to portray the meter w hen the earth, humans and animals were organize or created. In addition, the Dreaming is overly employed by people to pour forth about their ad hominem dreaming or their fellowships dreaming. Penrith (1996) claimed that during the Dreaming, ancestral spirits came to earth and organize the realmforms, plants, and the animals. The stories portray how the ancestral spirits locomote through the land forming mountains, lakes, and rivers.Nowadays, we ar already alive(predicate) regarding the places w here(predicate) the ancestral spirits defy been and where they came to rest. I deal that in that respect are reason outs of how people came to Australia and the connections amidst the groups all over Australia. Furthermore, there are also reasons alludeing how people learnt languages and dance and how they came to know regarding fire. Essentially, as what we leave al iodin learn from razzings work, the Dreaming originates from the land. This means that in Aboriginal society people did non testify the land it was scatter of them and it was part of their duty to pry and take care of m nearly another(prenominal) earth.Upon recital dolls work, I descriptorle say that the Dreaming did non cobblers last with the arrival of Europeans but basically entered a new phase. I think that it is an super originatorful living force that should be cared for and maintained. mount in doing the research and presentation of the results of the test The book is not simply a typical anthropological reading for specialists. razzing wrote this account in an appealing and dexterous manner such that it stinkpot be read and enjoyed by scholars specializing or enkindle in other fields.Apart from her anthropological studies, the origin imparts knowledge and experiences from ecology and religion and provides references to the concepts of capital of Minnesota Ricoeur, Stanley Diamond, and Gregory Bateson. Neverthe slight, this is not to say that anthropologists th emselves will not discover much interesting hooey here as well. In her work, the anthropologists domestic fowl mentions as important and powerful are Marcus, Fisher, and Geertz, Tedlock, Rabinow, Fabian, and Clifford. Mainly important in madams work is the figure or role of the anthropologist as the narrator.In my opinion, Bird seems to be self-conscious regarding her role as congressman and interpreter for the people she has examined and with whom she has lived. I think that Birds everyday usance that evades needless idealization or proselytizing is however to persuade the reader to contemplate on the tangled record of ecological justice and social justices Bird depicts as reflected in the lives of these people. She believes readers can learn from this. Nevertheless, I can say that Bird is no optimistic romantic.Furthermore, she is not a follower of new Age philosophies, nor does she suppose that a structure of interrelationship necessarily instills peace, harmony and pi ty creatures. Personally, I can say that Bird does not waver to portray the somebodyal abuse, beatings, malign sorcery and murder that happen. In fact, Bird even narrates her personal picture in wizard such condition. Nevertheless, Bird does not pursue in detail how far European power could shake off worsened such behavior. In her work, a quote from Stanner would appear to signify that Bird considers some conflict as an built-in part of the human situation in any quest for balance (p. 24). I also think that Bird hopes to come on thought and reasonable discussion concerning what kind of administration can best buzz off ecological justice. I believe that this is not merely an anthropological issue, but wholeness of tremendous significance to all strike-to doe with life on this earth. either in all, I think that Birds book has a boldly come up to and personal approach that is illuminating to general readers, magic spell also of great value to knowledgeable and skilled anth ropologists. Ethical Issues in the research Dingo Makes us Human is about concerns that are of pressing concern today.This includes kinship between humans and other living things, customary ecological knowledge, hallowed geography, environmental history, and colonising history. According to Bird (1990), the uncertainty of how I, or we, or all of us in the foundation, rely on capital of Seychelles River Aborigines concerns. She verbalise that from a professional viewpoint, it matters to her for the reason that what she learn is intensely reliant on who I am. In her work, she tackled the American facet of her identity. She emphasizes that it matters more significantly, though, since these people have a great many things of importance to articulate.Michaels (1986) claimed that eversince the year 1883 when Europeans first take ined the capital of Seychelles River district, a huge part of their historical conditions and environmental facts have been decided by others. Bird (1990) sa id in her book that their confess construction of intersubjectivity, grounded in multi-centred systems, and their survival within a system of extreme control have provided them curious understandings. Bird said that Yarralin people categorised or labeled her as an American mainly because of her idiom and her personal declaration of her nationality.She added that it took some time for her to realise that this categorisation brought an extremely arrogate moral valence and that in grade this characteristic of her identity they were making several(prenominal) determinations regarding the kind of person they expected or hoped her to be. Bird said that the confirmation was there long before she became completely aware of it. In the book, Bird said that during the first week or so of her two year residence at Yarralin one of the old men asked her to preserve to the chairperson of America and tell him to send him some forty-four gallon drums of mange grievous bodily harm for his dog s.When Bird said that she didnt know the President, the man told her to write to her come. Then when she said that she didnt know what mange soap was, the man said to her that even if she was unaware, other Americans would know how to heal or fragility dog mange. Significance of the study to the community In writing the book, Bird surveyed the system in the communities and she emphasized the focal nature of relationships cultural, spiritual, physical, and genealogical that pervade every purview of aboriginal life.These intricate patterns indicate an interconnecting worldview in which time combines and the ideal is balance preferably of truth or goodness. In her work, the organizing matrix upholding the concepts of knowledge, identity, and practice which are vital to this system is that of realm. The standard that informs the proper relationship to country is that of care. To take care of country is to be responsible for that country. And country has an obligation in re cycle - to nourish and sustain its people (p. 109). In her book, it was Dreaming organisms who initiated these concepts that are essential to encouraging the balance of life.In my opinion, when she talked about Dreaming, Bird is preponderantly grateful to the work of Stanner, quoting with approval his monetary value of reference a kind of discussion or principle of order (p. 44) a poetic key to reality (p. 44) and every when (p. 205). These are predominantly all-inclusive terms, public lecture about the original beings, their excellent acts, and the period of their existence. However, this time is coterminous with the present, and access offers a synchronous corroboration of that which must endure. Aboriginal culture is nevertheless not moderate to rigid replicas of an aboriginal blueprint.The aboriginal world is not static but dynamic. in that respect are various types of adaptations that take place. ane of the to the highest degree interesting discussions in this regard concerns the inroads of Christianity and the fate of the High God hypothesis, here place in the context of discreteness (pp. 229-232). Stories regarding Dreamings derive from Victoria River peoples experience of being invaded, conquered, and massively controlled. It is important to recover that until the 1967 referendum which allowed Aboriginal people unrestrictedly to become citizens in their own country, people on cattle send were classed as inmates of institutions.The institutions were the stations, and within that circumscribed world European managers and owners enforced a persist of terror through the massive and rude excercise of power (Berndt & Berndt, 1987). It is also important to remember that millions of dollars have been made over the years from these peoples land and labour, and through an indifference to government regulations and a manipulation of government subsidies which is best labeled criminal (Stevens, 1974).According to Bird (1984), all over the Victoria River distr ict Aboriginal people identify the source of the injustices under which they have lived, and continue to live, in the personage of police captain Cook, and more generally with English people. Yarralin people also tell stories that place the kinds of power they are seeking to understand practiced in Australia. Some stories indicate in passing that the Unions were here before headmaster Cook ever came, and that European settlers followed the victimize book or law. The stories of Ned Kellys travels in the Victoria River district tell of an indigenous European passion for justice (Bird, 1988).The power to control includes, and may be dependent upon, the power to construct living subjects as objects. It is a distancing that takes a dual form people come from the outside in order to kill and steal, and they deny that this is what they are doing. And while the killing and stealing have been moderated (not eradicated) over the past two centuries, denial persists in a particularly punge nt form the successors to the invaders can and do refuse to listen. They turn stories back on the speakers, not by denying them for that would at least be a form of engagement, but more simply and with greater devastation, by not listening.The most important of the reflexive relationships essential for life is that between people and country (Morny, 1995). The Yarralin people inherit cognatic (non-gender-specific) rights to country both by birth and by marriage. Because a persons Dream countries come distributively from both father and mother, there are thus two lines of descent that establish identity patrilineal (kuning) and matrilineal (ngurlu). Kuning also designates Dreaming beings associated with ones fathers country, while ngurlu indicates one or several plant species or animals.Marriage can also confer other rights. All these relationships are played out by means of an intricate system of social categories, most specifically those of subsections (pp. 75-79) and generation m oieties (pp. 79-89). Bird does not view her exploration as providing a solution to the definitional debate skirt term kinship (p. 117)) her aim is or else to describe the purpose and meaning of families against the desktop of the country as the nexus of individuals, social groups, Dreamings, nourishings, relationships, birth and death (p. 119).In turn, country, posited as a self-enclosed system, provides a model of curious instances that are part of an interlocking edge where each part is simultaneously unique and yet necessarily interconnected (p. 223). Dualism as a modality of imposing stratified order is thus eliminated each part can be appreciated as both similar and different. This lack of prejudiced distinction is best illustrated by the relationships between men and women, which Bird depicts in various contexts. It is characterized in the rituals, laws, and Dreamings as one of bilateral complementarity (p. 21).Like the sun and rain, both men and women are vital for li fe. At times one will supplant the other, but the conclusion of one results in the destruction of the other and, by implication, of the cosmos. Summary All in all, it is the enormous perspective that I believe represents the major interest of Birds study. It provides the basis of an ecological system or web of relationships that, if maintained, reinforces a state of self-sustaining, self-corrective balance. on that point is no omnipotent or centralized force in control. There are instead, many centers, none of which dominates.Bird does not explicitly state her preference for this worldview, but both in her allusions to monism and monocentrism as a less than flattering Western proclivity (p. 219) and in her use of an aboriginals judgement that Europeans have constructed relationships such that different types of beings, and different categories of people, live under different laws, and the laws are altered to suit the winners (p. 221), her implications are clear. Her incantation in the final chapter, titled This Earth, suggests that it is a matter of life and leaves no query about where her symphaties lie.Lastly, who is Dingo referred to in the title? Dingo is the wild dog of Australia. His cardinal battle was with the synodic month. He lost, forfeited unending life, and was condemned to a life that must ineluctably end. We are in Dingos image, full of erratic desires. Yet the moon who dies but revives with each passing month is caught in a sterile pattern. Therefore, to be alive as Dingo, even if the life history is limited, gives access to that dynamic force which makes life worth living in all its complexity of disruptive and generative energies